The tables below describe rating/grading guidelines frequently referenced at the Academy of Health Sciences.
|Evidence from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of RCTs
|Evidence obtained from at least one well-designed RCT
Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization
|Evidence from well-designed case-control and cohort studies
|Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies
|Evidence from a single descriptive or qualitative study
|Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees
From: Melnyk, Gallagher-Ford & Fineout-Overholt. Implementing the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Competencies in Healthcare.
|Definition for Research Evidence
|Definition for Non-Research Evidence
|Consistent results, sufficient sample size, adequate control, and definitive conclusions; consistent recommendations based on extensive literature review that includes thoughtful reference to scientific evidence
|Expertise is clearly evident
|Reasonably consistent results, sufficient sample size, some control, and fairly definitive conclusions; reasonably consistent recommendations based on fairly comprehensive literature review that includes some reference to scientific evidence
|Expertise appears to be credible
|Little evidence with inconsistent results, insufficient sample size, conclusions cannot be drawn
|Expertise is not discernable or is dubious
From: Dang & Dearholt. Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Model and Guidelines, p. 207.
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